Structural Design is the science of ensuring stability, strength, and rigidity of structures so that resist all applied loads without failure.
Types of structures:
1 .Frame structure
These are structures in which we begin construction with the frame, which is the main load-bearing component of the structure, and then gradually we construct other components, like walls, partitions, etc. In India, we usually prefer concrete structure frame, however, outside India, there are many options being used, for example, steel structure, timber structure, etc.
2.Load bearing structure –
In this type of structure, a load of the building is carried out by a wall and then going to the foundation. So, the wall thickness is more. The disadvantage of this type of structure is it losses carpet area due to more thickness of the wall. Mostly this is not preferred in a multi-story structure.
There are three basic types of the tunnel.
a.Cut-and-cover tunnels are constructed in a shallow trench and then covered.
b.Bored tunnels are constructed in situ, without removing the ground above.
c.The tube can be sunk into a body of water, which is called an immersed tunnel.
There are five types of bridge. arch, beam, cable-stayed, suspension, and truss. Other variations include cantilever and movable bridges.
There are many types of roadways, main are, Freeway, Major highway, minor highway, ramp, street, service road, etc.
There are main types of railways, for example, normal railway, electrified railways, monorail, high-speed railway, etc.