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Every Civil Engineer should be aware of Surveying. Are you aware?


Surveying is the art of determining the relative position of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation.

Principles of surveying-

1. Location of a point by measurement from two points of reference:

The relative positions of the points to be surveyed should be located by measurement from at least two points of reference, the position of which have already been fixed.

2. Working from whole to part:

The second ruling principle of surveying , whether plane or geodetic ,is to work from whole to part .It is very essential to establish first a system of control points and to fix them with higher precision. Minor control points can then be established by less precise methods and the details can be located using these minor control points by running minor traverses etc. The idea of working in this way is to prevent the accumulation of errors and to control and localize minor errors .

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#Surveying

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